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Dear babak,How often have you heard it said “children are not miniature adults – so they shouldn’t be trained this way...”?We all know this – and yet too often we still apply what are, in effect, scaled-down versions of adult training and conditioning programmes to our young athletes.Part of the problem is this: it’s hard to find up-to-date, scientifically proven training resources for parents and coaches of young athletes.That’s because the whole area of long-term athlete development is still a minefield of old-fashioned, out-of-date thinking.Which is why I asked one of my long-term Peak Performancenewsletter contributors to put his considerable experience in this area down on paper.James Marshall has a skillset ideally suited to the task. He’s a great communicator – essential given that a lot of people who work with young athletes don’t have a formal training in sports science, so would benefit from a book that is jargon free – but not dumbed down! (I’m thinking here particularly of parents.)James is also an experienced top-level athlete and coach. He knows first-hand what it is to train and compete with the very best – and how, in turn, to inspire and coach athletes. James trained in Karate at the Famous Marshall Street Dojo in London with top Japanese Sensei for 11 years. He also competed nationally and internationally, being on the Senior England squad for 3 of those years, before retiring in 2004 after the World Championships in Tokyo.On the coaching front, James has worked with Great Britain Rugby League National and Regional age group camps, and with the England Rugby Union under-16s and Under -18s. He has also been working extensively with TASS athletes (the UK’s Talented Athlete Scholarship Scheme) for the last 6 years.And he is currently working with a group of athletes from a variety of sports who are preparing for London 2012 and the Paralympics.So you can see why I’ve no hesitation in recommending James’ brand new workbook, Training Young Athletes, to every parent, school PE teacher and high school coach I know.NB: over one-third of this book is devoted to a comprehensive collection of sample workouts – sports-specific exercises that you can take and adapt for use with your own young athletes, warm-up and cool-down routines, conditioning programmes, and more.And because every one of them puts into practice the age-specific principles that are laid out in the rest of the book, you can be sure that you’re not asking a particular young athlete to train in a way that is inappropriate for his or current stage of development.He even gives you several coaching session planner templates – a truly handy time saver for those who are short of time when facing a coaching session with the kids at the end of an already-busy day in the workplace.The bottom line is this: James’ brand new work book is the most concise, practical and up-to-date resource I know that explains exactly how to work with young athletes – whatever their current stage of development or preferred sport. It’s even laid-out in a handy spiral-bound format—perfect for the school gymnasium or playing field environment.Right now you have a chance to reserve your copy of Training Young Athletes before it goes on more general release – and before the first printing is sold out and you’re forced to wait around for a reprint! (There will inevitably be something of delay...)What’s more, because you’re signed up on our Peak Performance web site to receive our weekly email newsletter, I’ll make sure you get Training Young Athletes at a greatly reduced price – and with freepostage and packing.What if Training Young Athletes doesn’t meet your needs and expectations? No problem, you can return it for a full refund within 30 days. No quibbles, no questions asked.Yours sincerely,Jonathan PyePublisher, Peak PerformancePS: Be sure to grab your copy today – before our initial print run is exhausted. (Inevitably there will be a delay before a reprint is available.)Click here to go to our special, 42% Discount Offer. Or read on to learn more aboutTraining Young AthletesLong-Term Athletic Development: understanding the ‘big picture’ so you get off to the right startChildren develop at different rates, with different physical abilities such as balance, strength and speed developing at different times.Unfortunately, the school and club system puts children of similar chronological age in groups together, even though these youngsters may be at quite different biological ages. For example a 14-year-old boy could still be prepubescent or, biologically speaking, a man, and so the two should be trained differently (guess which child most coaches select as part of their teams to win at that age group!).Also, girls generally mature earlier than boys so putting them in the same training group with the same exercises may not be appropriate either.A lot of teachers and coaches talk about ‘natural talent’, and whilst it is true that there are certain individuals who are genetically different (nature), most of what can be called ‘talent’ is simple skill acquisition, rehearsal and lots of practice (ie nurture).So in the first chapter of Training Young Athletes we look at some of the background behind how your child develops so that you understand the principles of training that should be applied at each stage of their development. We also show you exactly how to identify what stage of growth your child is at.Then we take a closer look at the right way to go about long-term athletic development – the process of developing a child’s physical abilities over time. It is best linked to a child’s biological age rather than his or her chronological age. As the body grows and develops, it is trying to organise itself into an effective mechanism for movement, reproduction and survival. The body has certain windows of opportunity at different points of growth, which allow for better adaptation of physical characteristics. Here environmental influences can help the process, or hinder and confuse to some extent.The physical characteristics are often called the 5 Ss: skill, strength, speed, suppleness and stamina. To some degree they can all be trained throughout the child’s development past the age of six, but care and attention has to be taken in how this is done.Overdoing the wrong type of training at the wrong time can lead to injury at worst – or the inhibition of maximal levels of physical capabilities in the mature adult at best.Ideally, each characteristic is better emphasised at different times and to different degrees. This allows safe and effective progression of the child’s fitness, and will allow them to build on each stage as they mature into an adult.NB: not all the areas develop simultaneously; there is not a simple step-by-step progression in a pre-defined order (as any parent of two or more children will know by observing the differences between them). Instead, each characteristic will develop independently, sometimes concurrently, but mostly at different rates.In Training Young Athletes we explain how to go about this the right way. We also identify the key indicator for trainability, where the child is growing at his or her fastest rate, and how you should use this in your performance assessment and training plans.The chapter includes a handy table that identifies and explains the 6 individual growth phases, and which trainable attributes apply to each stage of growth.We also discuss the pros and cons of early specialisation – a key issue is training young athletes about which there has been considerable debate. Should a child settle into a particular sport from an early age, or continue with a range of activities to ensure better all-round development.Click here to go to our special, 42% Discount Offer. Or read on to learn more aboutTraining Young AthletesAchieving Structural Integrity: how do you get the best all-round physical development?Physical activity and sport requires the body to move fast, jump high and long, turn around rapidly in unpredicted fashions and to keep going when fatigued. Lots of these movements are asymmetrical in nature - think of a long jumper planting on the same foot at take-off, or a tennis serve, or a javelin thrower.Now children naturally regulate themselves during play; they will sit down when tired, make up different movements and then try something different. The problem occurs when adults get involved and start asking the children to keep repeating the movements. Often young people are put through the motions without assessing whether their bodies are aligned to do this.Repetition of these one-sided movements, especially during growth phases, can lead to the body adapting and developing abnormally.An example of this is cricket fast-bowling, where the loads and demands on the body can lead to back, shoulder, neck and lower-limb injuries. While playing-time in matches is limited by regulations for young players, the good young cricketer may also play for an age-group up, and their local village side. This can lead to three or four matches a week in the summer. Couple that with winter nets training and the short-term drive to improve can lead to long-term damage.What is called for is a broad range of activities from both a motor-skill development and also a physical development perspective.The good news is that structured physical training can help develop the young athlete so that they rectify and prevent most potential problems. The balance between play, games and physical training and development is a crucial one. Too much play and things can get missed on the physical development side. Too much physical development and skills and decision-making get neglected. Too much games time leads to overtraining, poor skill development and injury risk.So in the next section of Training Young Athletes we set out the core principle of structural integrity. The discussion kicks off by identifying then explaining the four principles of training – which are essential to enhancing future work.Each young person will have different levels of ability within each category, and it is deciding which area that is most essential for the individual that is key. This also varies from body part to body part within the same athlete. However, experience teaches us that the same one or two pillars are either sound or problematic in each athlete.Then we look at some sample exercises that can help you assess the structural integrity of your young athlete. Ideally, a joint physiotherapist/athletic development coach with screening would be present, but this is unlikely to happen with limited funding opportunities.Instead, you can use these five structural assessment exercises to assess where your athletes are now, then look at the supporting exercises to help improve the areas that need work on. The five testing exercises can then also be performed as part of a training programme to help maintain the work you have done.NB: it is useful to assess this every six months to ensure that you are not missing any key points. If any of your athletes are carrying an injury, or you suspect that they are, it is important to get medical advice before proceeding.Our discussion includes full details of a structural integrity exercise plan – ten exercises in all, fully-explained for you. It concludes with an explanation of how best to integrate a flexibility programme into the training activity.Click here to go to our special, 42% Discount Offer. Or read on to learn more aboutTraining Young AthletesMovement Patterns and Motor Skill Development: how to get it rightMost people take movement patterns such as crawling, rolling, walking, running, jumping, skipping, throwing, catching and balancing for granted. These patterns form the foundation of all sporting skills to some degree or another. By training the basic movement patterns and enabling the young athlete to perform them faster, more often and without getting tired, the ability to improve skill levels is increased.If the young athlete can’t do these things well, they may be slower at taking up a new skill, or not able to perform it to a high level.Some young athletes excel early because they have been given a lot of sport-specific training. This is especially true in precision sports where the limited number of movement patterns involved mean that a high degree of specialisation can be developed. While this is good for junior competition in the short- term, the early acceleration of motor skills might lead to a subsequent plateau. Also, what happens if your child decides to change sports at 13 or 14, or starts a new school or moves house where there is no access to his specialised sport?Depth and breadth of training at a younger age allows a higher peak to be reached in the long-term. The more a young athlete learns, the more able they are to learn new things.It is generally assumed that it takes 10 years of practice or 10,000 hours to achieve an international standard of sporting achievement. There really are no shortcuts, but having the right training background at each stage of development will help the youth performer develop into an international at senior level.So the third chapter of Training Young Athletes looks at how motor skills are developed, the basic movement patterns and how to enhance them. We then examine the critical issue of how best to structure practice so that skill development is accelerated and remains constant when you need it - competing in sport.Again, what’s essential here is to focus on fundamentals. Physical fitness and sporting uptake in children is greatly affected by motor-skill competence. Acquiring competence in fundamental motor skills (FMS) such as throwing, kicking, and jumping in early childhood (two to five years of age) aids neuromotor development later in childhood. This then allows the development of more precise skills.The development of ballistic (fast moving) FMS involves multi-segment movements - the coordination of different joints, limbs and muscles. This places an increased demand on the neuromuscular system to generate and transfer energy optimally through the kinetic link system (ie optimising control and coordination).Throwing an object provides a good example. At first, your child may throw underhand or overhand, but will do this before they can stand. This involves an arm action using only the shoulder joint. The throwing then progresses to standing and throwing, possibly with some rotation of the waist, and also hand involvement. Next will be a step and throw - with the step being on the same side as the arm. Next will be an opposite leg step and throw, which is a really complicated movement requiring high levels of coordination. The final stage will be a run and throw with a plant leg (like a javelin thrower), which is very advanced.The accumulation of the various joints involved means greater speeds and force can be achieved than just by using one joint alone. This has to be developed in stages, and teaching children advanced throwing methods at years 6-8 if they have not mastered the fundamentals will result in frustration and likely failure as the child (or teacher) gives up. Remember, we are trying to challenge the systems so that they have to learn and adapt, and the children improve as a result.The question is, what can you do as a parent or coach to help with appropriate motor skill development? The good news is: rather a lot.So in Training Young Athletes we set out a range of exercises and activities that you can do and encourage to help your child develop motor skills. Once they have developed their movement skills, they can develop different skills that allow them to coordinate movements.NB: these motor skills are best developed at different times. So we set out for you which are the most appropriate ones at each stage of development.Click here to go to our special, 42% Discount Offer. Or read on to learn more aboutTraining Young AthletesResistance Training: what role could this possibly have in training young athletes?When asked about resistance training (RT) for children, most parents and even PE teachers would not allow children to lift weights before the age of 16. However, these same parents and teachers might allow or encourage the young athletes to turn up to training wearing various degrees of knee braces and ankle supports. However, RT has been shown to help prevent injuries in young people, while knee braces and ankle supports have not!What we need to remember is that children play sport to get fit and active, but it is also the number-one cause of injuries in adolescents. Resistance training is still looked upon as dangerous for young people, but with the intensity and volume of sport participation not about to reduce, it may be necessary to change this way of thinking.Going from the sofa to a sports pitch with no intermediate steps could lead to the breakdown of your child’s body.Playing six matches a week of the same sport at age 12 is highly likely to lead to injury. This is quite common practice amongst young people, and is not frowned upon, yet lifting weights is seen as ‘bad’. Jumping, running, throwing, tackling, braking and turning are all helped by RT. In fact, trying to do these activities without RT could lead to injury.As we discussed earlier, injury prevention is an important part of training the young athlete. A suitable RT programme will help prevent injuries, but also allow the young athlete to cope with the demands of training. Far from causing injuries, RT can help prevent injuries in young athletes, but parents and coaches may not be aware of this evidence.The bottom line is this: as the young athlete develops, RT will help enhance their sporting performance – but only if done correctly and under supervision.So in the next chapter of Training Young Athletes we highlight some of the modes of RT, the evidence to support it and suitable plans for pre and post-pubescent children. First we set out the cardinal principles of RT for children – what sorts of equipment should be used, which exercise routines are best, what are the right loads to be used with children of different ages and development, and what’s the best balance between exercise and rest?You’ll find out what different approaches to take with 9-10 year-olds compared with those who are 2 to 3 years older. And you’ll learn how best to choose which exercises to use when putting together a training plan, then how to progress the training in such a way as get the maximum gains without exposing the young athletes to the danger of injury.NB: the discussion includes a detailed examination of several sample session plans – each one specially designed around the needs of a particular age group of children.I reckon this section alone is worth the price of the book – there’s so much misunderstanding out there about whether or not to do resistance training with kids – and how best to go about it, if you do!Click here to go to our special, 42% Discount Offer. Or read on to learn more aboutTraining Young AthletesEndurance Training: recognising the very different needs of young athletesEndurance is an important component of almost every sport and so must be considered a high priority for every young athlete.However, the physiology of young people is different from adults. Children are using energy to grow and develop; they have shorter attention spans, and get tired more easily. They need to develop their endurance accordingly. Imposing adult-style endurance programmes on young athletes is both ineffective and potentially harmful. Instead, a long-term approach should be taken over months and years that allow a safe and effective development to take place.The ability to resist fatigue will allow the young athlete to concentrate more, develop greater skills, and to execute correct decisions at the key points in matches. Injuries often occur when the athlete is fatigued and either loses concentration or cannot maintain proper form when playing or training.In this next section of Training Young Athletes we examine the different modes of developing endurance in young people as well as structuring sessions that are suitable for their development. The discussion centres on the three key stages in a child’s development where endurance is most appropriately trained.Because endurance training is cumulative over long periods of time it’s critical to get the foundations and early practices right. So we place a lot of emphasis in this section on monitoring and assessment checks to ensure the young athletes are not being overworked.Click here to go to our special, 42% Discount Offer. Or read on to learn more aboutTraining Young AthletesWarm-ups, Cool-downs and Flexibility Training: essential, yet often-overlooked ingredients of long-term sporting successAt a young age children don’t really train - they play and participate. Perhaps warm-ups and cool-downs aren’t necessary until they get older and perform organised activities. They self-regulate how they stop and start movement.However, when adults start to get involved and exercise lasts longer, should more preparation take place?Think also from the child’s point of view. If they have been stuck in an exam hall, or driven to training for an hour, then they need to prepare mentally and physically for their sport. Similarly, if they are returning to class or driving home, how they stop their sport is also important. Throw into the mix the myths and misconceptions about stretching and flexibility development and it is no wonder that most young athletes are ill-prepared and confused about how to warm up, cool down and stretch.So in Training Young Athletes we next examine the purpose and structure of warm-ups and cool-downs, and the need for flexibility training in young people. We kick off the section with a close look at the purposes and pitfalls of warm-ups. Because this is an area of sports training and conditioning that is often misunderstood. Then we look at how best to integrate warm-up principles into workouts in a way that doesn’t put young athletes off the activity that is to follow.The discussion then switches to cool-downs, an essential first step towards post-session recovery. We identify the right ingredients for a cool-down session, and look at some activities you can use that are appropriate with young athletes, depending on their age.We end off the section with a consideration of the importance of incorporating flexibility into daily routines. But how best to do it? In Training Young Athletes we give you the answers.Click here to go to our special, 42% Discount Offer. Or read on to learn more aboutTraining Young AthletesCoaching Young Athletes: founding principles of successAs we discussed earlier, young people are not miniature adults. Not only are their bodies different, but also their emotional, social and intellectual needs are different from adults.Coaching them is a big responsibility.There is a duty of care placed upon the coach by parents who have left their child in someone else’s hands. The parent who has started off by teaching their child to run, catch and pass may find it difficult to cut the apron strings when they are handing over responsibility to a new coach.So no book on coaching young athletes would be complete without considering the unique challenges that young people face, and giving some guidelines for parents and coaches on how to support, develop and manage this process.This section of Training Young Athletes examines the duty of care faced by sports coaches and PE teachers – and the way in which this responsibility evolves over time as the young athletes mature. It also identifies the specific ricks that you face as a coach of children – and what practical steps you can take to guard against problems arising.The discussion then moves on to the challenges of being an appropriate role model, coping with issues around peer pressure, goal-setting for young athletes, and the development in them of appropriate levels of mental toughness and emotional maturity – all of them vital for competitive success in the short- and long-term.Remember: the foundation you help your athletes lay down in these early years may well go on to shape their sporting success in the decades to come!Click here to go to our special, 42% Discount Offer. Or read on to learn more aboutTraining Young AthletesSports Nutrition in Young Athletes: what you eat shapes how you competeThe body needs fuel for growth, repair, movement and for thinking power! Young people need more of it as they grow and develop and healthy eating is an important part of a young person’s athletic development. Unfortunately, they are often not the best people to manage their own diets!A big assumption is often made that children sleep well and eat well. However, inadequate rest is more prevalent, so the smart coach and PE teacher should assume that any new young athlete who comes to them is sub-optimally hydrated and nourished, and doesn’t sleep well.Having the energy for training and studying means that eating and drinking fluid throughout the day is essential. However, the logistics of organising a day’s food and drink, homework, training and playing kit means that shortcuts are often taken.With young people, it is key to get the parents involved and it is a good idea to check their bedtimes, lunch boxes and water bottles. One problem is that extra classes often happen over lunchtime or after school and this could mean skipping a proper meal.After all, no fitness programme will work properly unless the rest and recovery aspect of training is looked after.There is a lot of information that parents, coaches and children have to deal with. The food supplementation and dieting industries are massive and spend a lot of time and money trying to get your attention. This can confuse and cost the parent who is busy trying to juggle lots of different things and do the best for their child.So the next-to-last chapter of Training Young Athletes sets out the necessary fundamentals for constructing a healthy eating plan, providing guidelines for the parent and coach, as well as tips on what and when to eat and drink.Logically we kick off with breakfast – the most important meal of the day! Then we discuss a range of important issues including hydration, the timing of meals, when snacking is a good thing, supplements, and the issue of puberty and the young female athlete.Click here to go to our special, 42% Discount Offer. Or read on to learn more aboutTraining Young AthletesSleep and Success: how to make sure young athletes get the rest they need for peak performance“Work, rest and play” is a familiar term to an older generation. Nowadays it might be “work, work and more work”. Your body doesn’t get fitter during the training session. It gets fitter during the period between training sessions.Recognising the need for physical, mental and emotional recovery from physical activity and the sporting environment is very important. It is very often overlooked because it appears to “passive” or it happens away from school and the Club. This is a grave error and could limit your child’s progress, potentially leading to illness and \ or injury.It is very often a combination of poor diet and poor recovery that restricts the young athlete’s ability to match their peers in training over the long term.Coaches and teachers see the young athlete in their session, which may be once or twice a week. They train them, work them hard and then see them a few days later. A massive assumption is made by thinking that the child will have recovered by the next session. The “sporty” kid will be asked to train and compete for several different sports, sometimes on the same day.Young people recover relatively quickly from the right type of training, because they are quite good at self regulating the work rate and tempo of the session itself. The accumulation of work from several different sessions, plus fatigue from travel, school, lack of sleep and poor diet will mean that the child does not recover between sessions. 30% of team sport players in the 16 –20 year old age group suffer from staleness.So the final chapter of Training Young Athletes investigates how much recovery is enough, how to enhance and accelerate the recovery process and how to measure its effectiveness. At a young age the athlete will not have one overall Coach monitoring this situation, so it is probably up to the Parent to take overall charge.Our treatment of the issue kicks off with a discussion of the three types of recovery – and how best to optimise them. Then we look at how to go about planning the sporting week in such a way as to avoid fatigue in the first place.After all prevention is better than cure!This part of the discussion lists some particularly useful practical tips for coaches to use, and 3 relaxation strategies that young athletes can use at home.The section wraps up with a particularly important, yet often overlooked issue, namely sleep. Without sleep, the body can not physically repair itself, or allow mental and emotional recovery. In fact, all the other recovery strategies could be regarded as stepping stones to allowing a good night’s sleep. So, practical to the very last page, the final section of Training Young Athletessets out a number of useful sleep strategies for parents, coaches and children alike.Details of your pre-publication discount offerAs a registered member of our Peak Performance web site, you qualify for a copy of Training Young Athletes at a special discount.Place your order today and you pay just $39.99 (£25) instead of the full price of $69.99 (£43.70).Training Young Athletes is one of a series of special reports from Peak Performance, the sports science newsletter. This practical work book is not available elsewhere.Order your copy today and receive the following additional benefits:Advance, postage-free delivery: We will immediately despatch your hard-copy special report, ensuring you receive your copy weeks before it goes on world-wide sale.A 42% saving on the RRP: the special price of Training Young Athletes is a full US$30 less than the official cover price. You pay just $39.99 (£25), instead of the normal price of $69.99 (£43.70).Our Unconditional Money-back Guarantee: if, for any reason, you decide Training Young Athletes doesn’t deliver what we promise, just let us know. We’ll refund your money in full, immediately and without question.To order your copy, simply go to our secure site, which is administered and guaranteed by Worldpay, and enter your details.Click here to purchase your book at a 42% discount via at our secure Worldpay sitePlace your order today and we’ll also pay the postage costsPlease note, you have received this special offer through your subscription to our weekly email newsletter. To receive Training Young Athletes at the discounted rate of $39.99 (£25), please apply within the next 24 hours by clicking on any one of the links in this message.CLICK HERE to save 42%If you do not wish to receive any further messages from this group please click here to unsubscribe.If you are having trouble viewing this email, please click here.Peak Performance is published by P2P Publishing. Our UK office is located at 33-41 Dallington Street, London, EC1V 0BB, United Kingdom. Tel: 0845 450 6402 between 09:00 and 17:30 GMT, Monday to Friday.Our American office is located in 16850-112 Collins Ave 344, Sunny Isles Beach, FL, 33160, United States of America. Tel: 305-956-3992 between 09:00 and 17:00 EST, Monday to Friday (answer phone all other times).his is not only your exclusive invitation to become a fully-fledged Gold Member ofPeak Performance but an offer to claim a free special report that will transform your levels of strength and power - without bulking you up unnecessarily.What's more, I'm also offering those of you who respond today the chance to gain access to an amazing starter package worth well over $153.Before I tell you about all the benefits of Peak Performance Gold Membership, let me fill you in a little on my new report.I've called it 'The Top 15 Resistance Exercises for Optimal Strength, Speed and Endurance' This report doesn't need an elaborate name. It tells it like it is. And it's good. Full stop.Serious athletes like you don't need reminding of the importance of integrating resistance training into their year-round conditioning regimes. They know there's no quicker way to significantly boost their levels of strength, speed - and even their endurance.When it comes to resistance training, what athletes like you need is reliable, unbiased and up-to-date information - particularly on the central issue (the issue that so many of you email in to us about) of how you increase strength and power without adding unnecessary bulk, a subject on which it's rare to find independent, evidence-based advice.In this report you will find 15 revolutionary, fully illustrated exercises that will achieve exactly what you want. Skyrocketed performance without masses of muscle.There's nothing more damaging for an athlete than getting their resistance training sessions wrong. Not can only it lead to a dramatic deterioration in performance, it can also make you more susceptible to injury.And I'm pleased to say that this latest addition to Peak Performance's library of special reports is a safe guide for serious competitors. Don't forget, this report is available completely FREE to you today. No strings attached. No cost.This is a rare opportunity, being offered for a limited time, to assess the latest exercises in the field of resistance training for yourself, and decide how best to integrate them into your training and conditioning.Want an example? Read on. Or, take me up on my offer of gold membership toPeak Performance with this amazing new special report, NOW, click here.Remember, you also get a starter package worth over $153 and we are only asking for a nominal payment of $1.97 (Special Summer 2010 price) to cover our administration.Click here to join nowResistance Exercise 1 of 15: The Depth JumpThis is just one example of the brilliant exercises you can expect to find in this new special report. The other 14 will be immediately available to you when you take up full membershipMain muscles involved - quadriceps (thigh), hamstrings, glutes (buttocks), calf musclesJoint motion - ankle extension, knee extension, hip extensionSports applicability - Running (sprinting, middle and long distances), all running and jumping based sports such as tennis, football, basketball and high jump etc.MUSCULAR ACTIONThe depth jump is a 'plyometric exercise'. Plyometric exercises work on the principle that a concentric muscular contraction is much stronger if it immediately follows an eccentric contraction of the same muscle. (Eccentric muscular action occurs when a muscle lengthens under load - eg the lowering phase of a biceps curl. Concentric muscular contraction occurs when a muscle shortens under load.)The effect of a plyometric exercise is a bit like stretching out a coiled spring to its fullest extent (the eccentric contraction), then letting it go (the concentric contraction); large amounts of energy are released in a split second as the spring recoils.CONDITIONING BENEFITSGeneral - The depth jump provides a great base of dynamic power for the majority of sports. This is because it closely matches the sport specific speeds of movement and muscular action. Most standard weight training lifts, even when performed as quickly as possible, take 0.5 - 0.7 seconds to complete, whereas during a depth jump your feet may only be in contact with the ground between 0.2 and 0.3 seconds.Sport specific - Although the basic depth jump is very sports specific in itself, it can be made even more so by adaptation and variation (more later).To get step by step - illustrated instructions allowing you to utilize this great exercise, become a Peak Performance member now by clicking here. 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Introduction The 400 meter dash is an endurance sprint incorporating the speed of the sprinter and the endurance of the half miler. It is considered by many to be one of the most demanding and grueling of competitive events. Usually the 400 meter runner will fall into two distinct categories‑‑sprinter types and half‑miler types. Both of these types have had their share of success over the years. Occasionally you will find an athlete who possesses some characteristics of both the sprinter and half miler.


Michael Johnson, a former Baylor University and World Champion in both the 200 and 400 meters, is a prime example of the sprinter type 400 runner. However, he has developed his strength and endurance over the years to the level now that he can better maintain his superior speed over a longer distance than his competitors.


Technique The ability to distribute one's speed and energies in the most efficient manner over the total racing distance becomes the primary concern in reaching success in the 400 meter dash. No one is capable of running the 400 meters from start to finish all out. Good pace judgment in effort and distribution is a must. Remember, the 400 meters is not a full sprint. Speed at 100 and 200 meters can be a tremendous advantage to the 400 meter runners but only if they learn to distribute these energies properly. Generally the outstanding 400 meter runner will have approximately a one second deferential between their best open 200 meters and the time it takes them to run the first 200 meters of the 400 meter dash. The less experienced 400 meter runner should have approximately a two‑second deferential. A good formula for predicting the potential 400 meter time for 200 meter runners, providing they are willing to train and to give all they can to become a top 400 meter runner, would be to double the time of their best open 200 meters then add 3.5 seconds to this. It is obvious that the sprinter type has the advantage through the early stages of the 400 meters; however, if they are not trained properly, this advantage can melt away in a hurry toward the end of the race. The half‑miler type will definitely have an advantage from the 300 meters mark on into the finish. The main reason we are seeing more of the sprinter type succeed in the 400 meters today is largely due to the fact that we are able to develo‑p "stamina and endurance more effectively than we can increase the sprinting abilities of the middledistance runner.


Training The 400 meters is an oxygen‑deficient event. This means that the level of oxygen absorption is below that which is necessary to supply the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) requirement. The energy used during the 400 meter run is derived from the breakdown of high energy phosphate compounds and from the splitting of glycogen to lactic acid. This event will rely primarily on two anaerobic systems‑‑the ATP‑PC and lactic acid systems. Physiologists have not found a good way to measure anaerobic power, and this makes it very difficult to know if one is increasing the anaerobic reserves or not. We must rely on what we have learned from the physiologists concerning the components of fatigue during the running of the 400 meter dash. This gives us input concerning the types of stress that we must deal with during both the 400 meter training sessions and competition.



Proper training will help the athlete learn to deal with the stress that they will face toward the end of the 400 meter run. We know that severe exercising imposes great stress on the body, and it must learn to adapt to this stress or it will break down. We also know that when the body is gradually.put under stress, it will do whatever is necessary for its own well being to adjust to this new environment. When an organism is conditioned to the stress of athletic competition, it will be able to perform in that environment when called upon.


Training Segments The training year of the 400 meter runner will be divided into four segments:


a) Off Season (Summer and Falk‑September through December) b) Early competitive Season (January‑ February) c) Mid Season (March‑April) d) Late Season (May‑June)


Based on the demands of the 400 meter event, the following training workouts are recommended in varying degrees of emphasis during the training year. The time frame that each workout is used in the course of the training year is of vital importance. To derive the most from any training program, the runner must pay close attention to the proper introduction of a specific workout.


Types of Workouts


1. Speed Endurance This is running where the runner incurs a high oxygen debt, and there is a definite lactic acid buildup. This workout is vital to good 400 meter running. Distances that are run can vary from 100 to 600 meters. Number of repetitions is figured by multiplying the race distance 2 1/2 times; in this case this would be about 1000 meters. The recovery period will usually be around 10 minutes ‑ this is to give the runner almost full recovery so that there will be quality in the runs. This drill is designed to help the lactic acid energy systems.


Examples of Speed Endurance Workouts


a) 10 x 100                              5‑10 minutes rest

b)  6 x 150                               5‑10 minutes rest

c)  5 x 200                               10 minutes rest

d)  4 x 300                               10 minutes rest

e)  3 x 350                               10 minutes rest

f)   2 x 450 minutes                 10 minutes rest

Tempo Endurance This aerobic workout will pay great dividends for 400 meter runners. Not only will it help them to increase their oxygen uptake, which will help to shorten their recovery time, but also it will aid them in being able to accomplish more and longer workouts. This workout, since the runs are done at a slower pace, will help the runners learn rhythm; and as the workout suggests, tempo. Another vital byproduct of this workout is that it will also help to train the body to increase production of phosphate, which is a primary energy source. The emphasis in the workout should be on quantity and not on quality as is true in the aforementioned speed endurance workouts. The rest factor is generally kept short‑usually 2 to 3 minutes.


Examples of Tempo Endurance Workouts

a) 8 x 200                                                              2 minutes rest

b) 6 x 300                                                              2 minutes rest

c) 50‑100‑150‑200‑300‑350                                  Walk same distance for rest.


3. Strength Endurance This workout involves activities that will last longer than 10 seconds in duration. Such activities will include resistance running, Iong‑hill running and stadium step runs.


Examples of Strength Endurance Workouts

a) 6 x 150 meter hill

b) 6 x 60 stadium steps

c) 6 x 15 second duration long rope runs


4. Endurance Running This workout is pure aerobic running. It will consist of continuous runs of 15 to 45 minutes at a steady‑state speed. Although the 400 meters only requires about 5% aerobic running, it is important to the 400 meter runners to get a good base of aerobic running in order that they can improve their oxygen uptake so that their recovery time between efforts will be cut to a minimum.


Examples of Endurance Running

a) 15 minutes at steady‑state speed

b) 30 minutes of fartlik running

c) 6 x 800 meters on cross country course with 3 minutes recovery time


5. Power Speed This workout emphasizes speed of muscle contraction. This is usually done with less than 10 repetitions and no more than 10 seconds per repetition.


Examples of Power Speed

a) short hill runs of about 60 meters

b) 10 x 30 meter harness runs

c) 10 x 10 second fast rope jumps


6. Event Running This workout does exactly what the name implies. The runner will run different distances at a pre‑determined race strategy in order to learn to work on different aspects of running the 400 meters. We also refer to this as segment running.


                         Examples of Event Workouts

a)   3 x 300 meters. First 50 meters all out. Next 150 meters, relaxed floating action. All out on last 100 meters. All timed and recorded.

b)  2 x 450 meters. The first 200 meters, 300 meters, 400 meters and final 50 meters are all timed and recorded.

c) 1 x 350 meters. Quality run, with each segment run as if in the 400 race coming up.


7. Speed  These workouts will vary from distances of 30 meters to 150 meters. Work will be done at full speed either on the straight‑away or curve. Rest is usually long between runs in order to give full recovery so that we might receive quality performances. Relay hand‑off work will count as doing speed workouts.


Example of Speed Drills

a)          6 x 40 meter starts

b)           6 x 60 meter flying starts

c)        6 x sprint relay hand‑offs 60 meters


8. Strength  Strength workouts consist of both general and specific strength development. Our general strength development is done through the traditional weightlifting programs of both free weights and machines. We also recommend the use of plyometric drills to give us our specific weight work.


Examples of Strength Training

a)          30 minute traditional weightlifting workout (1 set 13 reps)

b)         Explosive jumps for the development of starting power and acceleration

c)           3 sets of 10 hops each leg

d)             fast 50 meter bounding runs with bar bell.


The following chart indicates the percentage of emphasis to be placed on the above

listed workouts.


                   Percentage of Emphasis Chart For Workouts


Types of Workouts                                     Fall                 Early                Mid                  Late

Speed Endurance                                        75                    90                  100                   100

Tempo Endurance                                     100                   100                 100                     75

Strength Endurance                                   100                    90                    80                     70

Endurance Running                                   100                    20                    10                       5

Power Speed                                                20                    60                    70                     80

Event Runs                                                   25                    90                  100                   100

Power Speed                                                20                    60                    70                     80

Strength                                                      100                   100                 100                   100



Emphasis is given in terms of % of use recommended for each workout in relation to each segment of the training year


400 Meters

Sample Workouts


1.       Fall (September through December)


Monday            1. Warm‑up: 1 mile cross country run

                         2. Flexibility exercises

3. 2 x 600                    Speed 60 sec. 400/ rest 15 minutes

4. 3 x 300                    Speed 50 sec./rest 1 minute

5. 3 x 300                    Speed 40 sec./rest 5 minutes

6. Cool down:             1 mile cross country run

7. Weights                      


Tuesday           1 . Warm‑up: 1 mile cross country run

                         2. Flexibility exercises

                         3. 10 x 200                  Speed 30 sec./Rest 3 minutes

                         4. 6 x 150 long hill runs Speed fast/rest, jog back

                         5. Cool down:             1 mile cross country run


Wednesday    1. Warm‑up:                 1 mile cross country run

                         2. Flexibility exercises

                         3. 4 x 350 (Event Run) Speed 48 sec/Rest 10 minutes

                                  (50 fast‑‑1 50 relaxed, 200 time 28 seconds‑‑l 00

                                  picked up fast‑dast 50 steady and keeping good form)

                         4. 3 x 200 Speed 30‑29‑28 sec/Rest 3 minutes

                         5. Cool down:              1 mile cross country run

6. Weights


Thursday          1 . Warm‑up:              1 mile cross country run

                         2. Flexibility exercises

                         3. 600‑400‑200‑400‑600 Speed 30 sec pace/rest 5 minutes

                         4. 6 x 100 strides                    Speed medium/rest 1 minute

                         5. Cool down:             1 mile cross country run


Friday               1 . Warm‑up: 1/2 mile cross country run

                         2. Flexibility Exercises

                         3.Two mile cross country timed run

4. Weights


Saturday             No organized practice, encouraged to do 3 miles running


Sunday               No organized practice, encouraged to do 20 minute fartlek


2. Early Season (January‑February)


Monday             1. Warm‑up: 1 mile in and outs (100 sprint/100 walk,

                                  3 laps, faster each lap, 4th lap run 200, 26 seconds)

                         2. Flexibility Exercises

                         3. 2 x 500                    Speed 56 seconds 400/rest 15 minutes

                         4. 3 x 200                    Speed 30‑29‑28 seconds/rest 3 minutes

                         5. 8 x 10 second rope jumps/rest 10 seconds, repeat


Tuesday           1.  Warm‑up:               1 mile in and outs

                         2. Flexibility Exercises

                         3. 8 x 200 Speed 28 seconds rest 3 minutes

                         4. 6 x 150 long hills speed fast/rest jog back

5. Weights


Wednesday     1. Warm‑up:                1 mile in and outs

                         2. Flexibility Exercises

                         3. 4 x 300 (Event Run) spped 42/rest 5 minutes

                         4. 3 x 200 Speed 30‑29‑28/ rest 3 minutes

                         5. 6 x 10 second rope resistance runs speed f ast/rest 10 seconds.


Thursday          1. Warm‑up:                I mile in and outs

                         2. Flexibility Exercises

                         3. 1 x 350 Speed fast/rest 15 minutes

                         4. 4 x 200 Speed 26 seconds/rest 5 minutes

5. Weights


Friday               1. Warm‑up:               1 mile in and outs

                          2. Flexibility Exercises

                         3.     3 x 200               speed 30‑29‑28/ rest 3 minutes

                         4.     1600 relay hand‑off work

Saturday           Meet

Sunday            NO organized workout, encouraged to do some light cross country running, about 20 mins


3. Mid Season (March‑April)


Monday            1. Warm‑up:               1 mile in and outs

                         2. Flexibility Exercises

                         3. 2 x 450                   Speed 52 seconds 400/rest 15 minutes

                         4. 3 x 200                   Speed 28‑27‑26/rest 3 minutes


Tuesday           1. Warm‑up:               1 mile in and outs

                         2. Flexibility Exercises

                         3. 6 x 200                   speed 26 seconds/rest 3 minutes

                         4. 5 x 20 seconds long rope resistance runs speed slow/rest 3 minutes

                       5, Weights


Wednesday 1. Warm‑up:                     1 mile in and outs

                         2. Flexibility Exercises

                         3. 4 x 300 (Event run) Speed 42 seconds/rest 5 minutes

                         4. 8 x 100 short hill runs speed fast/rest walk back

                         5. 8 x 100 short hill runs speed fast/rest walk back


Thursday          1 Warm‑up:                 1 mile in and outs

                         2. Flexibility Exercises

                         3. 3 x 200                    speed 26‑25‑24 seconds/rest walk 200

4. 3 x 150 (build‑ups) speed slow‑medium‑fast/rest walk back

5. Weights


Friday               1. Warm‑up:               1 mile in and outs

                         2. Flexibility Exercises

                         3. 3 x 200                    speed 26 seconds/rest walk 200

                         4. 1600 relay hand‑offs


Saturday                   Meet

Sunday                     No organized practice, encouraged to do some cross country running, about 20 mins


4. Late‑Season (May‑June)


Monday            1 Warm‑up:                 1 mile in and outs

                         2. Flexibility Exercises

                         3. 1 x 450 speed 50 second 400/rest 15 minutes

                         4. 3 x 200 speed 26‑25‑24 seconds/rest walk 200


Tuesday           1. Warm‑up:                1 mile in and outs

                         2. Flexibility Exercises

                         3. 4 x 300                    speed 42/rest 5 minutes

                         4. 4 x 200                    speed 28‑27‑26‑25/rest 3 minutes

5. Weights


Wednesday     1. Warm‑up:                1 mile in and outs

2. Flexibility Exercises

3. 1 x 320 (Quality run) speed fast/rest 15 minutes

4. 3 x 200 speed 26‑25‑24 seconds/rest walk 200

5. 8 x 80 meters short hill speed fast/rest walk back


Thursday          1. Warm‑up:                1 mile in and outs

                         2. Flexibility Exercises

                         3. 3 sets speed makers speed fast/rest jog

                                 (50 meter all out sprints‑‑50 meter swing down‑‑50 meter

                                 slow jog‑‑repeat until 4 all‑out sprints are done) 3 minutes rest between sets

4. Weights


Friday                1      Warm‑up:            1 mile in and outs

                          2.     Flexibility Exercises

                          3.     2 x 200 speed 26 seconds/rest walk 200

4.       4.          1600 relay hand‑offs


Saturday                   Meet

Sunday                     No organized practice, encouraged to do a little cross country running, about 20 minutes


These workouts can be applied to all levels of 400 meter runners, but performance times given in this sample are for a potential 46‑second quarter miler, so adjustments should be made accordingly.


400 Meter

Running Exercises


Exercise                   Brief Description                     Benef its                               Season


Endless Relay           Baton is kept moving,      mov‑ Endurance, stamina                   All

                            rest and run are controlled   .    and exchange work


Australian                  Sprints and slow jogging            Endurance, speed                  All

Pursuits              for total of 3 minutes                   and kicking dril                       l   


Long hill                     100 meters or more,                  Endurance, stamina               Fall/Early

                                  slow runs                                   and knee lift


 meters   600             Pace 400, pick‑up                     Endurance and stamina         Fall/Early

                                                                                            last 200


 meters 500               Pace 400, pick‑u p last              Endurance, stamina and        Early/Mid

                                            meters   100                             knee lift


 meters   350             Quality and training                   Mental preparation,                Early/Mid

  distance, all 5.5‑7                      endurance and stamina            and late

                                                                                      second 400 time


 meter 300 event       200 meters slow pace,              Mental preparation                 Early/Mid

   last 100 meters faster                endurance, running                and late



 meters   450                 Pace 400 and pick‑up           Mental preparation,                Mid/late

                       relaxed last 50 meters           endurance, stamina and

                                                                                        knee lift

Short Hill                  Less than 100 meters                Speed, leg drive and              Mid/Late

                                           fast runs                                   stamina


Flying Bears             Repeat 100s with                       Speed, strength &                  Mid/late

                                 jogging                                   running efficiency


 meters  320             Quality distance, add  12-10               Mental preparation,                Mid/Late

                      seconds for 400 time           speed and running               efficiency     

Speedmaker            Short 50 meter sprints                Speed, strength &                  Mid/Late

                                 jogging                                       running efficiency


150 meter Build-      50 meter 1/2 speed, 50             Running efficiency,                Early/Mid

ups                           meter 3/4 speed, 50                  speed, endurance and           and late

                                 meters near full speed               mental preparation


Competing  The ideal race pattern will be one of smooth deceleration if the runners have dispersed their energies properly, with as little tightening up at the finish as possible. The 400 meter runners should try to cover the first 50 meters at near top speed. At this point they should relax the actions of the upper body while still trying to maintain their leg speed. Their thoughts should be those of trying to settle into the rhythm of the race and to get a feel for their competition. They should also begin thinking about the next big effort they will make, which will be at the 200 meter mark. They should be trained and conditioned to know that at this point in their race plan, they will make a determined effort to increase the actions of their arms and to begin driving and lifting their knees, trying to resume more of a sprinting action. The runners who learn to work this turn from the 200 to the 300 meter mark will usually find themselves in good position to win the race. It is a controlled pickup, one that should allow the 400 meter runner to come off the final curve even or ahead of their opponents. During the final 100 meters of the race, the runners must learn to stay relaxed while fighting the effects of fatigue One of the best ways to do this is by thinking of proper running technique and good form which they have been taught and concentrating on this.


Summary  Before coaches plan their 400 meter workouts, they should ponder several concepts: (1) The basic concept of going from quantity to quality has not changed over the past several decades. (2) All workouts should follow a progressive pattern; you should standardize your workouts so that speed of the running distance should progressively be shortened and in some cases the rest factor as well. (3) The concept of overloading is also one which pays dividends. An example of this would be having the 400 meter runner run 2 x 600's, coming through the 400 meters at a very slow pace. As the first 400 meters time is gradually lowered to the point that the runner has difficulty maintaining pace, the distance is lowered. At the next distance, 500 meters, the runners will run at the same pace through the first 400 meters as they were running at the previous distance. The athletes will continue this workout drill until the distance is reduced to 450 meters. This final distance will hopefully be reached by mid‑season and

will be continued to the end of the year. It is suggested that the athletes run a single run as opposed to two runs before a major competition. Although the runner is getting less distance, effort is becoming greater‑‑thus more stress is being put on the body. (4) Another factor to consider in planning 400 meter workouts is that it takes a hard run of around 40 seconds in order to incur a significant lactic acid buildup. This being the case, the ideal distance for women would be 300 meters and for men 350 meters. Most quality 400 meter runners will cover this distance in slightly over 40 seconds, thus they are working a couple of seconds into lactic acid buildup. By running this distance, the runner can accomplish several of these runs in a workout session.


Finally, the coach must become personally involved in the race strategy of the 400 meter runners and be more than just a trainer. Time the different segments of the workout runs as well as competitive races. Let the runners know beforehand what you expect them to come through the 200 meters or even the 300 meters, if necessary, in order to get an idea of what kind of pace they are keeping. Oftentimes, the race will dictate what pace the runner will have to carry in order to be competitive, but this is no excuse for not having the runner mentally ready to perform at a certain level. It will give them valuable confidence if they know they have been through different checkpoints at a certain time in practice, thus they will not have a fear of doing this in actual competition.

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  تاريخچه شرکت پارس مینو

شرکت صنعتی پارس مینو در تاریخ 1338/8/6 با هدف تولید انواع بیسکوئیت ، شکـــــلات ، دارو لوازم آرایشی و بهداشتی با سرمایه 5 میلیون ریال تاسیس و تحت شماره 6980 مــــــــورخ 1338/7/28 در اداره ثبت شرکتــــها و مالکیت صنعتی به ثبت رسید.

در سال 1342 عملیات ساختمانی کارخانه آغاز گردید و در سال 1343 کارگاه آبنبات ســـــــازی افتتاح شد کـه بعـدا" به مینو خرمدره منتقل گردید . اواخر سال 1343 کارگاه ویفر ، بیسکوئیت سازی و لــوازم آرایشی و بهـــــداشتی شروع بکار کرد که پس از آن آدامس دراژه در سال 1346 ، کارگاه پفک 1347 ، آدامــس بادکنکی در ســــــال 1348 ، آدامس استیک در ســــال 1349 و نهایتا" کارگاه تولید سوخاری در سال 1352 به بهـــره برداری رسید و پس از 1352 زمیـــــــن مجاور کارگاه خریداری شد و کارگاه دارویی به آنجا منتقل گردید . تــــــــا سال 1357 مدیــــریت کارخانه به عهده آقای علی خسرو شاهی که کارخانه مینو تهران ، خرمدره و بخش فــــــــــــروش ( شرکت قاسم ایــــران و پرسوئیس ) تحت پوشش ایشان بود که پس از پیـــــروزی انقلاب اسلامي در اختیار سازمان صنایع ملی ایــــــران قرار گرفت و از سال 1380 ، 51 درصد سهــــــــــام به شرکت اقتصادی و خودکفایی آزادگان واگذار گردید.

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